Definition of Health, Disease & Cure, Preventive Medicine
Keywords: Science, Homeopath, Homeopathic
Key Persons: Samuel Hahnemann, Rudolf Arndt, John Henry Allen, Carl Gottlob Caspari, Bonninghausen, Hering, Johann Jacob Reuter, Benoit Mure
Health, Disease and Cure
Principles and Laws
1. Principle of Similar (1796)
2. Law of Minimum Dose (1801)
3. Law of Simplex (1797)
4. Arndt-Schulz Law (1887) [akin to Hormesis (1943)]
6. Progress of cure in Chronic Diseases (1828)
7. Theory of Chronic Miasms (1828)
8. Preventive Medicine (1799)
9. Potentisation (1801)
10. Doctrine of Vital Force (1833) [akin to Homeostasis (1926)]
11. Dynamisation (1837)
12. Diet and Regimen
Facts and Figures
Homeopathy offers a long-lasting to permanent cure, treating the disease from its roots, for most of the ailments.
Homeopathy was propounded and systematized as distinct new eco-friendly medical system by German physician Dr. Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 midnight Germany- 2 July 1843 France) in 1796. Hereceived his M.D. with honors in conventional medicine (known as orthodox medicine at that time) from University of Erlangen, Germany on 10 Aug 1779. His M.D. dissertation title was ‘on the causes and treatment of cramp’. He enrolled himself for post-doctoral qualification at ‘Georg August University’, Gottingen on 23 May 1794 but never completed it. From 1779-1784 he practiced conventional medicine. . In late 1781 he was appointed as Medical Officer of Health for Gommern near Magdeburg for one year. He realised his own school of medicine was barbaric and took to language translation of medical books. In 1790, he discovered principle of similar (published in 1796) and started researching on new system of medicine which he later called “homoeopathy” in a paper  in 1807.
From Germany (1796) homeopathy spreads to austria (1816) and then to the rest of the europe. The birth date of the founder and father of Homeopathy i.e. 10 April every year is celebrated as ‘ World Homeopathy Day ‘ and the week following his birthday i.e. 10-16 April every year is celebrated as ‘ World Homeopathy Awareness Week ‘ all through the world. More about homeopathy here
Homeopathy is a department of medicine which offers long lasting to permanent cure, treating the disease from its roots, for most of the ailments.
How Homeopathy defines the health of an individual?
Homeopathy is a rational science with respect to its concepts of health, disease and cure.Homeopathy defines health, medicine and vital force as dynamic entities.
Health is not just merely an absence of disease but a state of equilibrium of the vital force that keeps the constitution of an individual whole in harmony. Health is freedom from pain on physical plane, confusion on mental plane (mental clarity) and passions on emotional plane (emotional calm) . Signs of good health, apart from others, is refreshing sleep.
 Homoeopathy that take the long view of health, attempting to make our patients stronger and more capable of dealing with issues and problems independently of treatment. This is in fact the true strength of homoeopathy, to improve a person’s life beyond the immediate disease they present with.
Disease is dynamic disposition (alteration) in harmony of constitution (due to dis-arrangement of vital force) not just the physio-chemical alteration of tissues.Functional changes always precede tissue changes and pathology.Homeopathy treats the basic underlying cause of the disease not the effects so as to restore the normal function of the organism.
The health and disease are the two ends of the same spectrum. 
Cure (-the single purpose and highest ideal of the medicine) is “the rapid, gentle and permanent restoration of health, or removal and annihilation of the disease in its whole extent, in the shortest, most reliable, and most harmless way, based on easily comprehensible principles” . Cure means the recovery of the state of stability of physiological norms .“Cure” caused by investigated medicine should be the “gold” standard in homeopathy (Rutten et. al., 2004)
The Physician’s high and only mission is to restore the sick to health, to cure, as it is termed
— Samuel Hahnemann, Aphorism 1, Organon der Rationelien Heilkunden (Organon of Rational Art of Healing), 1819
1. Principle of similars :Similia Similibus Curentur i.e. Let likes be treated by likes
The drug which manifest the “likeness” i.e. most likelyto cure or relieve a case of disease is that drug which when administered to a healthy person, has shown itself capable of producing symptoms and changes in sensation experienced which most closely resemble those of the case of disease.
 The same drug acts differently when given to a person under conditions of disease from what it would do in the same person when in health. The powers of any drug over the human organism, is the sum-total of the symptoms andalterationsit has caused when introduced into a healthy organism, and the symptoms and morbid changes it has removed when given to the sick.
In other words, the specific curative property of a drug lies in its power of producing similar (not identical) symptoms in a healthy individual i.e. the drugs have sickness-making as well as sickness curing properties, the sickness being the same .What a drug can cause it can cure ; and that if you want to know what a drug can cure, you have only to discover what it can cause .Homoeopathy maintains that there is a constant relationship between the effect of drugs on the healthy and the curative reactions they call forth in the sick, so, clearly, you must test drugs on healthy people .
 Hahnemann found that when a medicine was able to produce changes similar in nature and expression to that of the natural disease in the patient, it stimulated a response in spite of obstacles or sluggishness of the system. This response was the natural one the body used in curing itself. The response was a temporary aggravation of one or more symptoms followed by quick amelioration.
 In 1790, he discovered principle of similar when he found that drug which was known to be curative actually produces those very symptoms when given to a healthy person. He said, “Substances which arouse a kind of fever extinguish the types of intermittent fevers….Cinchona cures intermittent fever by virtue of its power to produce in the healthy, a similar affection”.But the principle was published in 1796.
Disease can be cured by a medicinal substance given in nano doses that produces similar symptoms in health people when given in large doses. In simple words, the medicine can cure when given in nano doses what it can cause in large doses.
a. Red onion when peeled makes your eyes water and your nose burn. If you are having an attack of hay fever/common cold with watering eyes and a burning nose or a cold which is ‘worse indoors, better in open air’, a homeopathic remedy made from onion called allium cepa can relieve it.
b. Poison ivy causes redness, intense itching, burning, blistering and sometimes stiff muscles. Potentised poison ivy called as rhus tox (a homeopathy medicine) has been used for herpes, burns, eczema, allergy, arthritis, etc.
c. When you are stung by a bee you feel a burning, stinging pain and the tissues surrounding the area swell up. Some relief is gained from applying cold to the area. If you had swollen tonsils with burning and stinging pain relieved by cold, a homeopathic remedy prepared from the same source Apis Mellificia could cure.
d. Coffee keeps people awake and alert. A remedy prepared from coffee called coffea cruda in very small doses might be appropriate for helping someone with insomnia with an overly alert mind.
e. Eyebright causes a clear and bland nasal discharge along with tears that burn and irritate the skin under the eye. The homeopathic medicine Euphrasia prepared from eyebright cures it.
f. Quinine (derived form Cinchona bark) given in daily doses to a healthy person can cause symptoms similar to malaria. Indeed, the Cinchona Officinalis, a homeopathic medicine prepared from cinchona bark, is curative in many patients with malaria.
g. White Hellebore, in large doses, causes violent purging that leads to severe dehydration-symptoms similar to cholera. Veratrum Album, a homeopathic medicine prepared from White Hellebore is effective against cholera
h. Belladonna, a homeopathic medicine, is used to treat scarlet fever (bacterial disease), since the symptoms of belladonna poisoning closely resemble those of scarlet fever
i. Human body can tolerate about 7 grams of salt per day, but if we triple it and give 21 grams per day, we will have a very sick person within a fortnight with a host of symptoms peculiar to the substance given in high enough doses. A medicine prepared from common salt called Natrum Mur can cure host of diseases ranging from hypertension to depression.
The application of the Principle of Similars is found in chemistry, and immunology. For example, a basic principle of solvent chemistry states that a substance will be a solvent to another substance when it has a similar type of molecular bond. It has to be either similarly polar or similarly apolar, and then like will dissolve like. Immunology applies the Principle of Similars to activate antibody responses with small doses of a similar substance that will evoke the allergic symptoms.
Central to the Principle of Similars, is the idea of resonance. According to George Vithoulkas (The Science of Homeopathy, 1980), the process of homeopathy is to find the remedy with the vibrational frequency most closely matching the resonant frequency of the defense mechanism of the patient.If the remedy is not a close enough match, it will do nothing; if the match is close or exact, it will resonate with the individual and stimulate a process of healing . In order for the remedy to “communicate” and effect change, it has to be attuned to the specific composition of the patient’s disease pattern 
Principle of similar in conventional medicine
a. Ritalin (Methylphenidate)is an amphetamine (psycho-stimulant, a substance that would normally cause hyperactivity) chemically similar to cocaine and both increase dopamine levels in the brain. Conventional medicine gives this “stimulant” to treat hyperactivity in children
b. Hyoscyamine (an alkaloid of Hyoscyamus, in homeopathy we have medicine by the name Hyoscyamus Niger) is today given to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel, which very symptoms it produces in both toxicological and provings records .
c. Radiation to treat people with cancer (X-ray causes cancer)
d. The vaccines in conventional medicine
 The degree of immunity resulting from the administration of a vaccine is also known to be variable, depending on the potency of antigen preparation, the doses given, the interval between doses and the degree of ability (sensitivity) of the person to produce antibodies, when properly stimulated. All these reminds one of the homeopathic system of treatment.
e. Anti-venom against snake bite prepared from snake venom. (Isopathy)
The oldest reference to the idea/concept of ‘principle of similars’ has been found in Ayurveda: Tadarthakari Chikitsa (treatment by similars)  where it is being mentioned three types of similarities: similarity of drug with the disease, similarity with the cause of the disease and the similarity with the both .
By similar things a disease is produced and through the application of the like it is cured……The disease is produced by influences which act similar to the healing process and the disease condition is removed through remedies which produce similar symptoms to the disease  – ‘On the Places in Man
— Hippocrates (The Father of Medicine, 460-377 B.C., Greece).
Often the simile acts upon the simile 
— Aristotle (384-322 B.C., Greece)
Kalidas said, “Shruyate hi pura loke, vishaya visham aushadam”. Translated from sanskrit, this is read as:
It has been said of old time in the world that poison is the remedy for poison
— Kalidas epic “SingaraTilaka”, 57 B.C.
What makes a man ill also cures himand “Every illness has its own remedy within itself . . .”
— .Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (1493-1541, Switzerland)
Paracelsus was expelled from his professorship at Basle in the year 1528, for saying that medicine and disease were one and the same thing and that all diseases ought to be called by the name of the medicines which cure them .
While Hippocrates, Aristotle, Kalidas, Paracelsus, George Ernst Stahl (1738), Anton von Störck (1762) had noted the existence of similar principle in particular cases, it was Hahnemann who discovered that similars is a general therapeutic principle in medicine.
Why would a patient swallow a poison because he is ill, or take that which would make a well man sick
— L.F. Kebler, M.D.
2. Law of minimum dose: The Smallest Effective Dose
 The action of a drug may be pathogenetic (toxic), or therapeutic (curative), depending upon the size and strength of the dose, the susceptibility of the patient and the principle upon which it is given.The therapeutic dose must be capable only of producing a slight temporary aggravation or intensification of already existing symptoms, never of producing new symptoms. Only the similar remedy, in the smallest possible dose, is capable of bringing about this highly desirable result.
According to Herbert. A. Roberts, the law of minimum dosage could be summarised from the fundamentalLaw of Least Action, formulated byMoreau de Maupertius, the French mathematician which states
The quantity of action necessary to affect any change in nature is the least possible; the decisive amount is always a minimum, an infinitesimal
— Moreau de Maupertius (1744, France)
This principle can be seen in action all around us. How much warmth is required to unleash the incredible growth. potential in a seed? How much energy from the sun is needed in order to nourish a single flower .
1796: In ref , Hahnemann recommends use of “small doses” but do not mention what is small.
1798: In “Some kinds of Continued and Remittent Fevers”, Hahnemann recommends Ledum 6-7 grains, Ignitia 2-3 grains, Opium ½-1/5 grain.
1799: In the “Apothecaries Lexicon” Hahnemann recommends Sabina “in very small doses” and Hyoscyamusalso “in very small doses according to my method one-sixtieth to one-thirtieth grain (2.16-1.08 mg) of the concentrated juice given in solution.” 
1800: Hahnemann translated a “Treasure of Medicine or Collection of chosen Prescription” (Thesaurus Medicaminum) from English. In the preface, he wrote, “When it will be recognised, that the curing of maladies needs the perfectly appropriate medicine in less quantity-a simple formula and yet more correct”
1801: “Cure and prevention of scarlet fever“, published in Journal of Practical Medicine, his discovery of the prophylactic properties of Belladonnain scarlet fever. His dose: 0.416 nanograms of Belladonna, to repeat the dose every 72 hrs. This is the first recorded nano dose of medicine used in treatment of any disease. Thus Hahnemann can be attributed as The Father of Nano Medicine
§242. The counter-disease force (the remedy), chosen as appropriate as possible for the cure of the natural disease, should be made only strong enough to effect our purpose, and should not injure the body in the least by unnecessary strength .
§273: “It is not correct, to attempt to impact with plentiful, what can be achieved using only a single”
The patient is as sensitive to the medicine as to the disease. If the medicine is used in large quantities or in too crude a form then we can actually make the symptoms worse i.e an aggravation of the patient’s condition/disease .
…do no harm
— Hippocrates,Epidemics, Book I, Chapter 2
Since homeopathy acts at dynamic level, the ‘similar’ remedy must be given in minimum (smallest possible) dose which is sufficient to stimulate the secondary action i.e. to stimulate energy/vitality and evoke the organism’s innate natural healing response (self-regulatory mechanisms) to bring about the necessary curative change in a patient. This ensures there is no overdosing and no addiction.
 What dose will suffice for curative process (remedial effect) to start, yet still be so minute that the gentlest and most rapid cure will be attained? What is the most appropriate degree of smallness for certain as well as gentle? How small would the dose of each medicine administered? In other words, how small is small?
The smallest dose of the homeopathic medicine is: in case of dry dose is one pellet/globule; in case of wet dose is the divided dose. The minimum dose may be different for different people based on patient’s sensitivity.
 The greater the sensitivity to a substance, the smaller the dose required. This smallness is to be optimal, that is, effectively the amount by which the medicine exceeds the strength of the disease. Hahnemann said, “Only pure experiments, careful observation of the arousability of each patient, and correct experience can determine this in each particular case.” (aphorism 278) Even where the amount of medicine seems large, it works to the extent that it exceeds in a slight amount the sensitivity of the organism.
Out of all homeopathic medicines , one that is similimum is a remedy.
Similimum is the most similar remedy given in optimal potency and minimum dose. Similimum, like disease, is dynamic. It modulates the energy inside the body.
Minimum dose of most similar remedy but incorrect potency is still homeopathic, however curative effect will be non-existent or less than what is anticipated or an aggravation.
Why small doses of medicine is better than large dose? (2006) FULL TEXT
3. Law of simplex:One single medicine for the patient at any given time(Organon 1st edition)
 In 1797 in his essay, “Are the obstacles to the attainment of simplicity and certainty in Practical Medicine insurmountable?” he wrote, “Is it good to mix various kinds of medicines in a prescription? He further asked, “How can medicine attain a higher degree of certainty, when the doctor seems intent only on allowing a number of miscellaneous forces to be exerted at the same time on a pathological state?. He further said, “May I be allowed to confess that for several years I have never prescribed more than one medicine at a time….May I be allowed to confess that, as a result, I have successfully cured patients to their satisfaction…”
 In 1800, Hahnemann translated a “Treasure of Medicine or Collection of chosen Prescription” (Thesaurus Medicaminum) from English. In the preface, he wrote, “When it will be recognised, that the curing of maladies needs the perfectly appropriate medicine in less quantity-a simple formula and yet more correct…..Does it not occur to you that two dynamic agencies together can never effect that which each individually might administered at different times?…. Nature likes simplicity and can perform much with one remedy, while you perform little with many. Imitate nature!”
§ 274 (Organon, 6th ed.): “….never think of giving as a remedy any but a single, simple medicinal substance; for these reasons also, because even though the simple medicines were thoroughly proved with respect to their pure peculiar effects on the unimpaired healthy state of man, it is yet impossible to foresee how two and more medicinal substances might, when compounded, hinder and alter each other’s actions on the human body”
Remember what Hippocrates said, “Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease. “
It is the masterpiece of art to give the right medicine, not the most complex. Hippocrates chose the simplest. When will it be recognised that the cure of diseases is better affected by simpler but properly selected remedies?
— Hahnemann on Hippocrates
Remember what Paracellus said, “The art of healing comes from nature and not from the physician. Therefore the physician must start from nature with an open mind.”
The effect of the multiple remedies may not be necessarily the sum total of the effects of the individual remedies, but rather a combination function as a single remedy . At any given time, only a single remedy (one remedy at a time) can be the exact similar to the presenting disease condition of the patient. A single remedy known as Genetic constitutional similimum  is chosen/selected/matched on the basis of its patho-genetic similarity to the patient’s disease condition, his constitution, and wholistic approach (totality or essence of the symptoms which includes physical, mental, and emotional aspects/symptoms) which treats different complaints of the same person.As the patient progress, there might be a change in presenting symptoms (new set of symptoms). So there might be a call for a change in medicine/potency.
(W)holistic (the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, Jan Smuts, 1926): medicine for the patient/sick person/individual not just for the disease
Dr. Hahnemann in 1813 in his essay entitled ‘Spirit of the Homoeopathic Doctrine of medicine’ said Man is a “biological whole”. No single part by itself represents the human being nor can manifest itself independently [from the others] .
A Patient cannot be viewed in fragments without violating fundamental and universal laws of nature .Each part of the body depends upon every other part, and all act together as one, in health and disease [42, page 9]. Disease is the disturbance of the whole organism. We are not fragmented into separate parts each carrying a specific ailment . The parts of the body do not independently get sick . It is the whole person who is affected by the disease and it is the whole person who responds to the medicine  . Therefore homeopathy does not believe in giving different medicines for different afflicted parts of body (head, nose, ears, throat, etc) but rather give one single constitutional remedy, which will cover the disturbance (different complaints) of the whole (same) person. Thus one does not have to visit ten different specialists for his/her ten different body parts.
The concept of disease in homeopathy is that disease is a total affection of mind and body. Mind and body are dynamic and complex, with each part influencing the other and acting together. Neither mind nor body fall sick as separate units [7, pp.183]. Homeopathy is based on the fact that the person’s experience in emotional and mental (state of mind) life can not be separated from their physical complaints (body). Illness and physical problems can result in anxiety or emotional uneasiness. The opposite is also true. Most (not all) illnesses have their roots on mental plane. Very often mental troubles come first followed by physical complaints. Desire, anger, greed, pride, jealousy, suspicion, etc go on harassing and making our body also weaker and unable to resist diseases . Prolonged emotional stress can cause physical problems, like upset stomach, difficulty in digesting foods, poor nutrient assimilation, weaker immune system, sleeplessness, etc. Emotions are closely related to endocrine glands  and nerves. The mind/emotions have real power to influence over the working of the physical body. That’s why homeopathy medicine is as psycho-somatic medicine and is excellent for psycho-somatic diseases such as Migraine, Asthma, Peptic ulcer, Allergy, Ulcerative colitis, etc.
Wholistic is opposite of local. Local remedy can be similimum or partially indicated remedy
It is more important to know the person who has the condition than it is to know the condition the person has
The cure of the part should not be attempted without treatment of the whole. For the part can never be well, unless the whole is well
— Plato, Greece
The good physician treats the disease; the great physician treats the patient who has the disease.
— William Osler
Genetic constitutional Similimum
Genetic code genome is responsible for what’s going to constitute the make-up of a resulting individual. This code map is responsible for physical, mental and emotional symptoms, which are a result of both functional disorders and structural changes in the body
1. Physical symptoms: Structure/built/looks, thermals such as tolerance to external factors like heat, cold, sun, wind, sound, light, peculiar symptoms such as inflammation without pain, etc
2. Mental symptoms: state of mind, likes, dislikes, preferences, cravings, desires, aversions, thirst, appetite, temperament (reactions of mind to various external stimuli or circumstances)
3. Emotional Symptoms: Nature, behaviour, mood, emotions, sensitivity, reactions
Constitution in homeopathy means a person’s state of health, including their temperament and any inherited and acquired characteristics. Environment (stress, shock, traumas producing changes in glands) modifies the constitution. According to homeopathy, mind and body are very much linked and physical problems cannot be effectively cured without understanding and putting right the person’s constitution and character. A constitutional remedy covers the general bodily disturbances/imbalances (different complaints) of the whole (same) person.When a homeopath physician during ‘case receiving’  takes all these above along with family history for prescribing a medicine, it becomes a genetic constitutional simillimum
5. Individualisation:each person is unique/one size does not fit all
Symptom X will always be cured by remedy Y no matter who the patient is. But no two patients can have same set of identical symptoms (physical+mental+emotional). Therefore two people suffering from the same disease may or may not be prescribed the same remedy. This is individualisation.
No two individuals are alike in health or in disease. Individualisation helps homeopaths in tailoring medication and posology according to the needs of the patient.Thus homeopathy is not ready-made but tailor-made in terms of selection of remedy and posology. You can say homeopathy is a designer medicine.A homeopath looks for PQRS (peculiar, queer, rare, strange) symptoms in ‘case receiving’ to establish individuality. The importance of PQRS symptoms is in the following order: peculiar, rare.
The process of individualization builds up a doctor-patient relationship.
The only exception to the individulisation is the use of genus epidemicus during an epidemic.
4. Arndt-Schulz Law 
The law of minimum dose got verified by Arndt-Schulz law.
It explains the ‘bi-phase/biphasic response’ (also known as ‘reverse/dual action’) of drugs.
This pharmacological principle was concurrently discovered by two separate researchers, Rudolf Arndt, a homeopath and Hugo Schulz (Professor of Pharmacology at University of Greifswald, Germany), a conventional scientist.
The law is about non-linearity between dose and response. Itstates that, “weak stimuli slightly accelerate the vital activity, medium-strong stimuli raise it, strong ones suppress it and very strong ones halt it”.
In simple words, ‘Minimal (minute: below its toxicity threshold) doses (weak stimuli) of a drug stimulate (increases physiological activity), medium doses inhibit or suppress and large doses (strong stimuli) abolish/destroy cellular activity (adverse effects).’
Schulz published examples such as very weak concentrations of iodine, bromine, mercuric chloride and arsenic acid will enhance the development of yeast (fungus), moderate dosages of these elements will suspend it and large dosages will kill it. Arndt and Schulz also experimented on yeast with Merc, cor., Iodine, Bromium and Salicylic acid and showed that in the weak doses these substances increase the multiplication of yeasts, yet strong doses kill them .
In other words, substances vary in action depending on whether the concentration is high, medium, or low. The opposite action of large and small doses of medicine is known as‘bi-phase response’, also known as ‘reverse action of drugs’ i.e. every medicine has two action phases that depend upon dosage. Therefore, rather than the effectiveness of a medicine increasing with the increase of the dosage, research has consistently proven that very small dosages of a substance have the opposite result of larger ones.
1. The usual medical dosages of atropine inhibit the parasympathetic system and cause dryness in the pituitaries, while very small dosages cause increased secretions.
2.Ipecac in large doses causes nausea and vomiting and in small doses, under certain conditions, will cure the same
3. Opium in large doses will cause a deep sleep, and in small doses, under certain, conditions, will cure the same.
4. If certain brain neurons of an organism have a lowered threshold for firing after responding to a given stimulus, then the next stimulus would raise the threshold, and vice versa. As a result, low intensity stimuli can activate, and high intensity stimuli dampen, responses .
5. Erythromycin at low doses (0.5-1 mg/kg) enhances gastric motility but at higher doses (10-20 mg/kg) it may cause emesis .
6. Cytostatic agents (azathioprine, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil, methotrexate and vincristine) in high concentrations (100 micrograms to 10 nanograms) shows immunosuppressive effects whereas the same in low concentrations (10 nanograms to 10 femtograms) shows immunostimulating effects .
7. Low dose arsenic produces anti-cancer effect whereas higher toxic doses can cause cancer 
8. A most recognisable example of the biphasic response is that reduced energy (caloric) intake leads to improved health (Mattson, 2008)
1896: Hueppe, a bacteriologist extended the findings to bacteria
1920: Searle (The Use of Colloids in Health and disease) found that colloidal copper injected intravenously in large diseases aggravates boils, injected intramuscularly in small doses it cause them to heal [42, page 20].
1926: Karl Kotschau said, “As a general rule it may be stated that most poisons are double and polyphasic only in very definite middle concentration while small and large amounts respectively are primarily uni-phasic and have an opposing action each other” .
1940: Wolf (Endocrinology in Modern Medicine) stated that glandular extracts in small doses stimulate an activity while large doses act to depress that activity [42, page 20].
1943: Southam and Ehrlich coined the term ‘hormesis’ to describe this. Hormesis is an adaptive response that is induced by stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high doses. Nanoparticles can cause hormesis . Hormesis ensures homeostasis is maintained.
1945: Miller et al. confirmed that at low doses penicillin actually stimulated the growth of Staphylococcus.
1946: Alexander Fleming (Chemotherapy, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow) observed that in early work on sulfanilamide, complete bacteriostatis was achieved with a small in vitro inoculums, while the microbes grew freely if the inoculums was large [42, page 21].
More about relationship of homeopathy to hormesis
The idea/concept of ‘Arndt-Schulz law’ had first been mentioned by Paracelsus.
All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous…..It depends only upon the dose whether a poison is poison or not 
6. Progress of cure in Chronic Diseases (The Chronic Diseases, 1828, page 135): It states that during the course of treatment the cure progresses from above (top of the body) downwards (head to chest to abdomen to legs), from within (inside of the body) outwards (exterior, often as skin eruptions), center to periphery, from more important organ to less vital one (brain followed by heart, liver, kidney and lungs followed by muscle and skin), in reverse order of coming of the symptoms (presenting symptoms disappear in the reverse order of their appearance i.e. First In Last Out, so old symptoms might resurface).
“The bloodbrain barrier (BBB) provides both anatomical and physiological protection for the central nervous system (CNS), strictly regulating the entry of many substances and bloodborne cells into the nervous tissue” . This indicates how the body is designed to actively protect the systems that are most vital to survival.
1845: Hering published in the preface of the first American edition of Hahnemann’s Chronic Diseases an extract of an essay called “Guide to the Progressive Development of Homœopathy”, a reference to the hahnemann’s progress of cure.
1911: Kent in the first volume of the Transactions of the Society of Homœopathicianscalled “Correspondence of Organs, and the Direction of Cure” made a mistake of reference of Hahnemann by Hering in 1945 as Hering’s law.
To the list of Hahnemann, Dr. Praful Vijaykar adds a corollary: From more destructive miasm to less destructive i.e. from syphilis to sycosis to psora.
Immunologists claim that the body has the capacity to “remember” every “assault” on the system that it has ever reacted to, and this process confirms that capacity .
 The direction of cure was first mentioned by Hippocrates. In the 49th of his aphorisms he writes, “In a person suffering from angina pectoris the appearance of swelling and erythema on the chest is a good sign, for it shows that the disease is moving towards the circumference”. And in aphorism 26 of section 6, he writes, “If the erysipelas moves from the outside to the inside, it is a bad sign, but if the opposite happens it is a good sign.
6.Theory of Chronic Miasms (The Chronic Diseases, 1828):
In 1827 Hahnemann revealed his theory to Stapf and Gross – his two closest students but the theory was published on 1828.
Homeopaths have known since 1828 that there can be predispositions to illness, and that these can be passed on. Dr. Hahnemann in 1828 (the modern light microscope was not invented then) said the cause/origin of chronic was an underlying chronic infection or miasm. He defined miasms as infections (material) and disease tendency (condition that favour a disease) arising from the excessively minute, invisible living creatures/animated beings.
Suppression is the stopping of any physiological activity or the stopping of visible signs of illness. Dr. Hahnemann observed that suppressing symptoms disables the organism’s innate healing mechanism and drives the disease deeper and so the patient develops a more chronic disease at a later stage. Therefore, the body’s own energies should be stimulated to encourage its natural healing process.
Hahnemann identified three diseases which, if the symptoms were suppressed, led to other long-lasting (chronic) conditions and predispositions to illness. These three diseases he called: 1. Psora (Greek for itch) – the ‘itch’ disease arising from scabies. The one arising from Scabies was called Psora or non-venereal miasm
Hahnemann had discovered that chronic maladies…had some connection with a previous outbreak of Psora (skin diseases). He said, “The fact that this extremely ancient infecting agent has gradually passed, in some hundreds of generations, through many millions of human organisms and has thus attained an incredible development, renders it in some measure conceivable how it can now display such innumerable morbid forms in the great family of mankind.”
This was published 32 years before Darwin proposed his theory of evolution inOn the Origin of Speciesin 1860
The other two were called venereal miasms as they arose from sexual conduct.
2. Syphilis – The one arising from Syphilis was called Syphilitic miasm
Hahnemann described the different stages in the evolution of syphilis, which he eventually extrapolates to the other two chronic miasms. First, he said, there is the contagion that happens at the point of contact. This is followed by a prodromal state where the entire organism is seized by the miasm. Then after a lapse of time there is the appearance of local symptoms, the chancre in the case of syphilis. Then, he says, as long the local skin manifestation remains present, the disease will not manifest itself in the interior of the organism. Therefore, it is the disappearance or suppression of the chancre that precipitates secondary syphilis. “So it, the chancre, when not expelled acts vicariously and soothingly for the syphilis within.”
Sir William Osler said that he “who knows syphilis, knows medicine”
3. Sycosis (Greek for fig since this disease produces fig-like warts) – gonorrhoea. The one from Gonorrhea was called Sycotic miasm.
 While psora is said to be a condition of a man, a condition that favours diseases, itch (an internal disease) is merely an indication of existence of psora. So also, sycosis is not gonorrhoea but it is said to be the condition of human system, that is bonded to it by gonorrhoea, which was not cured but only made to disappear either by a course of suppressive treatment or by itself. Similarly, syphilis is a condition of the system arising out of the suppression of the chancre.
 Psora is more commonly known to attack the blood vessels and liver, and causes deposits beneath the skin, forming suppuration and boils, sycosis affects the soft tissues, and syphilis affects both the soft tissues and the bones.
 observed that, ‘psora’ is the sensitizing miasm, producing no structural change but only functional disorder, manifested by hypersensitivity, —itching, irritation, burning, utmost up to congestion and inflammation. ‘Sycosis’ is the inco-ordination miasm producing inco-ordination everywhere, mental or physical, and syphilis is the destructive miasm producing destructive disorder everywhere, mental or physical.
 The three chronic miasms seem to indicate or symbolize the three distinctly different categories of gene mutation. Psora symbolizing sub-lethal (sensitizing), sycosis semi-lethal (inco-ordinating) and syphilis lethal (destructive) type of mutation.
These contagious miasms (noxious influence) has to be neutralized and annihilated by a morepowerful and deep-acting anti-psoric, anti-syphilitic and anti-sycotic homeopathic medicine.
He said, “On board ships – in those confined spaces, filled with mouldy watery vapours, the cholera-miasm finds a favourable element for its multiplication, and grows into an enormously increased brood of those excessively minute, invisible, living creatures, so inimical to human life, of which the contagious matter of the cholera most probably consists millions of those miasmatic animated beings, which, at first developed on the broad marshy banks or the tepid Ganges– on board these ships, I say, this concentrated aggravated miasm kills several of the crew ....
It was another 9 years before Henle called these micro-organisms as “germs” in 1840 in his persuasive germ theory.Robert Koch saw these germs under microscope in 1877.
The Theory of Chronic Miasms was further advanced by addition of one more miasm ‘Tubercular’ by Dr. John Henry Allen in his book “The Chronic Miasms” in 1910
Conclusion:  The theory of miasms has three different aspects –
1. Genetic predisposition to acquire a disease inherited by parents. The susceptibility of psora, sycosis and syphilis is laid by inheritance and that the complicated forms of psora are those which are inherited .
2. Acquired predisposition for chronic diseases – through a suppressed disease or use of allopathic / antipathic measures or other strong influences on the vital force like vaccination, strong emotional or mental shock
3. Diseases which when untreated or maltreated, lead to chronic disease syndromes related to natural progression of disease or lead to an increase in susceptibility for other diseases when immunity is low.
8. Preventive Medicine/Homeopathic Prophylaxis : Like Prevents Like
A remedy that is given in advance of illness will prevent the disease it will cure .
Benjamin Franklin said ‘An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure’?
Preventive use of homeopathy was first applied in 1799 during an epidemic of scarlet fever in Königslütter, Germany, when Dr. Hahnemann prescribed a single dose ofBelladonna as the remedy of the epidemic genius to susceptible children in the town with more than 95% success rate .
It was another 125 years before Gladys Henry and George Frederick developed a vaccine for scarlet fever in 1924.
Prophylactic: At times it has been seen that a specific medicine for example Euphrasia taken for conjunctivitis precipitates the illness rather than stimulating the illness. More examples of prophylactics are Belladonna for Scarlet fever, Pulsitilla for Measles.The prophylactic treatment during pregnancy to avoid inherit miasmatic burden for the newborn is called eugenics.
Genus Epidemicus: During epidemic disease, the homeopathy medicine prescribed for majority of patients (minimum 6) in the same geographical area is known as Genus Epidemic. Eupatorium Perfoliatum is one specific medicine for prevention of chikengunya fever when taken during epidemic.
As the strains of causative organisms change, there are definitely some variations in the symptomatology and therefore, in Homoeopathy,genus epidemicusneeds to be identified each time an epidemic breaks out, which makes it more reliable to prevent the disease .
Nosodes: Medicines prepared from disease products are known asNosode. They increase specific immunity regarding etiological agents
9. Potentisation:It is carried out in type-2 borosilicate (96.4%) glass vial.
Potentisation involves two steps
a. Systematic dilution of Mother Tincture or third attenuation in water-ethanol solution: successive reduction in the concentration of the basic medicinal substance to make the drug chemically non-toxic.
Mother Tincture (ethanol-based extract) is prepared by adding the original drug substance in ethanol or a 10% water-90% (v/v) ethanol solution (phytochemical extraction methods, Maceration/Percolation for 15-21 days, hydraulic press].
b.Succussion of the solution/trituration of the mixture after each dilution or both in case of LM potency
Trituration is carried out by pulverisation in a grinding machine for minimum of one hour
Succussion is a very specific and carefully controlled iterative process in which there is agitation by vigorous vertical shaking (10 to 150 damped strokes, boiron does 150 times in 7.5 seconds) or turbulent motion resulting in particle collision, vibrations or molecular friction and shear forces into solution that break off smaller and smaller particles of the remedy source material as well as silica crystals from the walls of the glass vials. Molecules contained in the drug substance gets liberated themselves from their inter-molecular bonds and get ionized. These ionized drug molecules thus attains a full expression of their chemical and biological properties, and become more virulent than the tightly packed original molecules. Latent energy (negatively charged electro-magnetic energy) is released into the diluent/diluting liquid which become charged (intensification of its energetic charge). Succussion is the amplification of that energy. The diluent liquid then carries the energy.
In some substances such as ethanol and lactose, because of their atomic and molecular structures, the formation probability of the free electrons, is relatively more. These materials are used as carrier substances of homeopathic remedies
Effects of Potentisation 
1.It activates (brings out) the qualitative change (formative intelligence) in dynamic properties of the physical/remedy substance (solute) which is potentised by eliminating the chemical toxicity (by dilution) and enhancing its efficacy by activates its latent healing properties (by succussion) which were otherwise inert. The properties are transferred/imprinted on the carrier/solvent (water-ethanol mixture).
2. It increases the range (intensification) and depth (more readily absorbed into the body (tissues) of curative action of a drug.
3. Potentisation creates Molecular Clusters (micro-domains) in water, alters the physical and chemical properties of water, alters the structure of water and creates nanostructures in aqueous solutions.
The more a substance has been potentised, the more collative medicinal powers it has. ‘Potentised High dilutions’ are highly-diluted aqueous solutions potentised above avogadro limit . What remains is the imprint (code) which is hold in the structure of water.The potentised medicines influence the biochemical processes and relieve the pathological molecular inhibitions. This enables it to affect the body therapeutically. Lactose can absorb intact nanoparticles sprayed onto its surfaces .
 Michael Faraday tells us that “Each atom extends, so to say, throughout the whole of the solar system yet always retaining its own centre of force.” “What do you know of the atom,” asks Faraday, “apart from its force? You imagine a nucleus which may be called a, and Surround it by forces which may be called m ; to my mind the a, or nucleus vanishes, and the substance consists in the power of m”. If “every atom extends throughout the whole solar system,” there is no possibility of our finding the limits of its capacity for being attenuated.
A research by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay in 2010 indicates the presence of 1-4000 nanograms/litre of fine nano-particles (5-15 nanometer) of the original starting material in 200c potency of metal-derived homeopathic medicines. A research by IIT Delhi in 2011 indicates the presence of crystalline nano-particles (100 nano-metre) in 15c potency of plant-derived homeopathic medicines.
The homeopathic potencies are prepared in three scales of dilution factors:
1. Decimal (X or D):1 part source to 9 parts diluents (1/10 i.e. each dilution step divides the original quantity by 10)
2. Centicimal (C or CH):1 part source to 99 parts diluents (1/100 i.e. each dilution step divides the original quantity by 100).
3. Millecimal (LM or Q): LM potency is derived from 3C trituration of the original drug substance.
Each dilution step in three scales divides the original quantity by 10, 100 and and 50,0000 respectively. A potency 12c means it is diluted 1:99 12 times with succussion at each dilution level.
Relationship between various scales dilution wise
2X = C (C is succussed more than X at same potency)
LM1 = 5.35 C (LM1 succussed considerably more than 6C)
Each step of LM dilution is a rise of approximately 2.5C, so
LM3 = 10.35C (LM3 succussed considerably more than 12C)
LM30 = 63C (LM30 succussed considerably more than 30C)
7X is 10 times more diluted and 150 times more succussed than 6X.
1798: Hahnemann used 2x, 4x and 2c
1805: Hahnemann crossed Avogadro limit, potency 18c appears for the first time.
1801: In paper “Cure and prevention of scarlet fever”, he mentioned the method to prepare potentised Belladonna “we dissolve a grain of this powder … in one hundred drops of common distilled water, by rubbing it up in a small mortar; we pour the thick solution into a one-ounce bottle, and rinse the mortar and the pestle with three hundred drops of diluted alcohol (five parts of water to one of spirit), and we then add this to the solution, and render the union perfect, by diligently shaking the liquid. We label the bottle strong solution of belladonna. One drop of this is intimately mixed with three hundred drops of diluted alcohol by shaking it for a minute, and this is marked medium solution of belladonna. Of this second mixture one drop is mixed with two hundred drops of the diluted alcohol, by shaking for a minute, and marked weak solution of belladonna; and this is our prophylactic remedy for scarlet-fever, each drop of which contains the twenty-four millionth part of a grain (0.0416 nanograms) of the dry belladonna juice.” (Lesser Writings, p. 380-381)
10. Doctrine of Vital Force (Organon 5 th edition,1833): Dr. Hahnemann in 1833 said that the cause/origin of disease may not be always a miasm. It could also be due to dynamic morbid derangement/disorder/vibratory dys-rhythm of non-material vital force. Vitalism is the metaphysical doctrine that living organisms possess a non-physical bio-energetic self-powered inner inborn biological strength that gives them the property of life. i.e. it maintains the vital operations, sensation and functions in all parts of material body and regulates the body’s self-healing capabilities.Kent defined vital force as “Having formative intelligence, being subject to changes, pervading the material substance without replacing it, creating order in the body, belonging to the realm of quality rather than quantity, being adaptable and being constructive”.
Being invisible and unmeasurable, and recognisable solely by its effect on the organism, it can express itself and reveal its un-tunement only by pathological manifestations in feeling and function in the form of symptoms. The internal (weepiness, irritability) and external (fever, rash, inflammation) symptoms of a disease reflect efforts of the vital force to seek a new equilibrium to sustain homeostatis, so as to counter infection, or to resist damage from environmental toxins or from various stresses. Homeopathy attempts to strengthen/stimulate/repair this vital force so as to restore balance/order with the help of potentised remedies,whose effects ‘are perceived by the nervous sensitivity everywhere present in the organism.’ (Organon VI, page 16). Now compare this with the modern textbook which states that ‘Nervous tissue detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating nerve impulses. The nervous tissue in the brain helps to maintain homeostasis.’ . Each dose stimulates a reaction to the vital force, which moves up a level in health only to be further stimulated by the following dose .
More about Vital Force.
In paragraph 72 of Organon, Hahnemann has called vital force as ‘automatic life energy’. Vital force ceases i.e. no longer exist at death. The ‘vital force’ was renamed as ‘vital principle’ by Hahnemann in 6th edition of Organon. The term ‘vital principle’ was originally coined by Paul-Joseph Barthez (1734-1806). Vital force is known as ‘natural defense mechanism’ in conmed. The vital force is akin to: chi or qi (chinese medicine), prana (ayurveda medicine) and ki (oriental medicine, japan).
11. Dynamisation (Chronic Diseases, 2nd edition, vol.3, pp. 156): It is an increased number of succussions to continually strengthen or intensify the potency without further dilution.Hahnemann said, “This slight change in the degree of dynamization is even affected, if the bottle which contains the solution of one or more pellets is merely shaken five or six times, every time before taking it.”Dynamisation did not allow the patient to have drug dependency.With wet doses (1833) and dynamisation (1837) together, the potency is gradually raised, expanded, and intensified to continually stimulate the vital force at regular intervals.
12. Diet & Regimen 
1792: He advocated healthyaccommodationfor the sick. In an advt in Anzeiger for asylum run by Hahnemann; “Everything is prepared here so that these most miserable of sufferers find security and humane treatment as well as everything that medicine has to offer for their recovery
1795: He advocated improvements in public hygiene measures
1841: He had identified the need for healthy housing and a healthy diet, including avoidance of excess use of sugar and salt.
Facts and Figures about Homeopathy
1779: Dr. Hahnemann awarded M.D. with honours in conventional medicine from University of Erlangen
1790: Hahnemann became the first person to test the effect of drug (Cinchona) on healthy human being,findings appeared under the title, “Experiments concerning a new principle for the discovery of the healing forces of drug substances besides a short review of what is known so far”, Journal of Practical Medicine, Vol.1, Issue 1, 1796 
Aphorism § 274 : “The wholepathogenetic effects of the several medicines must be known; that is to say, all the morbid symptoms and alterations in the health that each of them is specially capable of developing in the healthy individual must first have been observed as far as possible before we can hope to be able to find among them, and to select, suitable homeopathic remedies for most of the natural diseases.”
1792: Dr. Hahnemann advocated healthy accommodation for the sick, before anyone else
1795: He advocated improvements in public hygiene measures, before anyone else
1796: Principle of Similars
1797: Drug Interactions introduced in homeopathy. Hahnemann in his essay, “Antidotes to some heroic plant substances”, he recommends coffea cruda as an antidote for veratrum album
1797: In one of his publication in Journal of practical Medicine, he distinguished between “dynamically” and “chemically” acting medicines 
1797: Law of Simplex introduced
1799: Homeo-prophylaxis introduced by Dr. Hahnemann
1801: Law of minimum dose
1801: Potentisation introduced
1805: Hahnemann crossed Avogadro limit (not known then), potency 18c appears for the first time.
1807: The term ‘homoeopathy’ and ‘homeopathic” was first published in Journal of Practical Medicine
1810: Organon of Medicine, 1st edition
1811:Hahnemann introduced First Materia Medica (Medical Material) in homeopathy:Reine arzneimittellehre(Materia Medica Pura)
1822: First homeopathy Journal (german): Dr. Johann Ernst Stapf’s Archive for homeopathic healing art
1825: First homeopathic pharmacopeia by Carl Gottlob Caspari
1828:The chronic Diseases:their nature and homoeopathic treatment published
1828: Hahnemann introduced nosodes in homeopathy: Psorinum
1829: Organon of Medicine, 4th edition: Theory of Chronic Miasms
1829: A Society was formed under the name -Society for the Promotion and Development of Homoeopathic Medicine with Hahnemann as its president. It was later renamed The Central Homoeopathic Union.
1829 Sept 19 (19 sept 1829-19 Feb 1830): World’s First placebo controlled trial conducted in Russia by a german homeopath Hermann
1832: First homeopathy repertory by Dr. Clemens von Bonninghausen (“Systematic Alphabetic Repertory of Anti-Psoric Remedies”)
1833: Organon of Medicine, 5th edition: Doctrine of Vital Force, wet doses introduced
1833: Potencies prepared in De-cimal scale (X or D) introduced by Hering
1833: Isopathy introduced by Johann Joseph Wilhelm Lux
1833: Central Homoeopathic union was instrumental in establishing first Homoeopathic hospital in Germany
1833: First English translation of the Organon by Charles H Devrient with notes by Samuel Stratten in Dublin
1834: Hering introduced sarcodes in homeopathy
1835 10 April: Hering founded the World’s First homeopathic medical college “The North American Academy of Homeopathic Healing Art”, Allentown, USA
1835: World’sFirst Double-Blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial (DBRPCT) was conducted by a german homeopath physician Johann Jacob Reuter(Natrum Mur 30c vs placebo)
1837: Dynamisation introduced
1838: Benoit Mure built the first potentisation machine
1841: Dr. Hahnemann identified the need for healthy housing and a healthy diet, including avoidance of excess use of sugar and salt, before anyone else
1842: Organon of Medicine, 6th edition written: introduced new scale of potency ‘infinitesimal dilutions’
1856 July 28: Unknown author ‘NE’ in the German journal Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung introduced Hahnemann’s new scale of potency ‘infinitesimal dilutions’. Before that onlyHahnemann’swife and Bönninghausen knew about this new scale of potency. Later, Dr. Pierre Schmidt of Geneva termed this new scale as “50 Millesimal”. Rudolf Flury gave the abbreviation ‘LM’. The name ‘Q-potency’ was introduced by Jost Kunzli
1860: First homeopathy Journal (English): The North American Journal of Homeopathy
1881: Blood Pressure measuring instrument Sphygmo-graph was invented by a UK homeopath Robert Ellis Dudgeonwhich earned him first Prize at the Paris Medical and Sanitary exhibition of 1881.
1887: Arndt-Schultz Law
1906: World’s First multi-centre (11 centres in USA) DBRPCT conducted by a homeopath Howard Perry Bellows 
1921: Organon of Medicine 6th edition (German) published
1922: Organon 6th edition (English) by Dr.William Boericke published
2001: Alcohol forms clusters with water (Wisniewski)
2010: Homeopathic medicine beyond 12C potency retains nano-grams of fine nano-particles of the original starting material (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay)
The regulation of health care practice varies from one country to another. As far as people demand quality multi-dimensional homeopathy health care, governments are obliged to provide. Undoubtedly, homeopathy is the medicine for the 21st century.
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