4 Research Models in Homeopathy

· homeopathy

Research models in Homeopathy


A. Basophil Degranulation Model (Jean Boiron, Jacky Abecassls, Philippe Belon 1983)

It is a biological Model for sub- and super-Avogadro dilution research.

Basophils (involved in immune response) are white blood cells extracted from the blood of donors and then stimulated by potentised antibody generator (antigen) (such as Histamine and Apis mellificia) causing them to degranulation. There is an inhibition of basophil activation by potentised antigen.

Histamine in potency below Avogadro’s limit such as 2c, 5c, 7c-12 c, 3x-20x as well as above Avogadro’s limit such as 13c-19c modulates human basophil activation.

B. Post-Conditioning Hormesis Model (Van Wijk R and Wiegant, 1997)

Low dose of stressor agent is applied to stressed cell culture

C. Quantum Macro Entanglement Model (Walach H, 2003)

Atmanspacher, Römer & Walach (2002) proposed a model ‘Weak Quantum Theory” (generalised version of Quantum Mechanics) that predicts a generalised form of entanglement-a concept established by Schrödinger in 1935. Walach proposed ‘Entanglement model of Homeopathy‘ in 2003.

1. The oxygen atom has 6 electrons in its valence shell, but 8 are possible according to quantum physics.

2. Quantum effect is pronounced on nanoscale. For example nanoparticles less than 50 nanometre size are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects.

D. Pre-Conditioning Hormesis model (Philippe Belon et. al., 2004)

The model is different from that of Benveniste; he used the same control but not the same activator.

RESEARCH PAPERS PUBLISHED ON RESEARCH MODELS (compendium of 22 studies, 9 full-text)

Inclusion Criterion: Peer-reviewed, statistically significant, journal publication

Exclusion Criterion: plant and animal studies, radionically prepared or different potencies of same medicine mixed together

A. Research papers on basophil degranulation model

1. Aspects of Research in Homeopathy

The Effects of Hahnemannian Potencies of 7c Histaminum and 7c Apis Mellifica upon Basophil Degranulation in Allergic Patients (1983). Jean Boiron, Jacky Abecassls and Philippe Belon

Histamine 7c and Apis 7c reduces the release of certain allergy-causing chemicals from basophils

2. Innovation et technologie en biologie et médecine (French)/Innovation and Technology in Biology and Medicine (English)

Approche quantitative de l’effet d’Apis mellifica sur la dégranulation des basophiles humains in vitro (1986)

Incubation of in vitro human basophils with high dilutions of Apis mellifica inhibits allergen-induced basophil

3.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

In vitro immunological degranulation of human basophils is modulated by Lung histamine 5c,15c,18c and Apis mellifica 9c,10c (1988) FULL TEXT // blind experiment, in-vitro

4. Nature

Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE (1988) FULL TEXT // This study is popularly known as“memory of water” study. Benveniste replicated his results 70 times. Three other labs (in Israel, Canada, Italy) replicate the results before the paper was published—an unprecedented requirement. Anti-serum is blood serum containing antibodies.

5. Inflammation Research

Inhibition of human basophil degranulation by successive histamine dilutions (1999) FULL TEXT

Flow-cytometric Analysis of Basophil Activation: Inhibition by Histamine at Conventional and Homeopathic Concentrations (2001) Benveniste results published in Nature 1988 got replicated in this paper. Histamine 7c, 9c,10c, 13c inhibits basophil activation

6. Forschende Komplementärmedizin (German)/Research in Complementary Medicine (English)

Sensitive Flow Cytometric Method to Test Basophil Activation Influenced by Homeopathic Histamine Dilutions (2003) Histamine 11c, 12c inhibits basophil activation in vitro

7. Homeopathy

Influence of the Diluent on the Effect of Highly Diluted Histamine on Basophil Activation (2003) Histamine 3-20x inhibits basophil activation in vitro

Improvement of flow cytometric analysis of basophil activation inhibition by high histamine dilutions (2006)

Inhibition of basophil activation by histamine 15-17c: a sensitive and reproducible model (2009)

High Dilution Research models: a bibliometric study (2010) FULL TEXT 22 out of 24 experimental models were reproducible and 7 of them were independently reproducible

B. Research papers on Post-Conditioning Hormesis model

Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

The similia principle as a therapeutic strategy (1997) Low dose of stressor agent (represents homeopathic medicine) such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, etc is applied to disturbed/stressed cell culture (represents ill patient).

C. Research papers on Quantum Macro Entanglement model 

1.Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde (German)/Research in Complementary and Natural Classical Medicine (English)

Entanglement model of Homeopathy as an Example of Generalized Entanglement Predicted by Weak Quantum Theory (Walach H, 2003)

2. Forschende Komplementärmedizin

Towards a New Model of the Homeopathic Process Based on Quantum Field Theory (Linonel Milogram, 2006) PPR Entanglement model of homeopathy

3. Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine

Entanglement Theory (2007) FULL TEXT

4. Perspective in Public Health

Is Homeopathy Possible? (2006)

Geometrical Description of PPR Entanglement

D. Research papers on Pre-Conditioning Hormesis model

Inflammation Research

Histamine 15-19C, 30X, 38X modulates anti-IgE stimulated human basophil (CD63) activation (2004) FULL TEXT //Flow Cytometry Analysis at 4 different laboratories in Europe found that Potentised Histamine alters the activity of White Blood Cells. Peak of biological activity at 16c. This study was replicated in two studies mentioned below.

Cytometric Protocols for analysis of human basophil (CD203c) activation: Biological Activity of Histamine 17C (2006) FULL TEXT

Histamine 2C, 12C, 14-16C potency inhibits CD203c up-regulation in anti-IgE stimulated human basophils (2009) FULL TEXT


9 FULL-TEXT PDF papers are available for download on Google Drive

DISTRIBUTION OF STUDIES on Research Models (Published till 2010)
Type of Research No. of studies No. of Journals Type of Journal
Research Models
10 5 Integrative
5 2 Homeopathy
7 5 CAM
22 12

Last Modified: This webpage was last updated on 23 May 2020.

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