How does super-Avogadro dilutions in Homeopathy work?

Scientific plausible mechanism of biological action and pathways of 'potentised high dilutions'



How ‘super-avogadro dilutions’ in homeopathy stimulate the biological activity and restore the homeostatic mechanism?
Memory of Unique Water structure, Potentisation, Quantum Macro Entanglement Model, Corporeal Signifiers
Keywords: Quantum Coherance Domains, nanostructures, nanotechnology, Properties & Structure of Water, supramolecular
Key Persons: G.O. Barnard, Jacques Benveniste, G S Anagnostatos, Elia Vittorio, Rustom Roy, Harald Walach, Luc Montagnier, Prashant S Chikramane, Wolfgang Ludwig

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All system of medicines are prepared and administered in doses whose concentration can be quantified to be below Avogadro’s limit except for homeopathic medicine which is available both below (hormetic) as well as above [Beyond the Reciprocal of Avogadro Number (BRAN), also known as avogram) Avogadro's limit.

1 mole of a substance contains as much grams of substance as its atomic mass and contains 6.02254 x 10^23 molecules. The conventional medicine is generally available at concentrations between 10-6M (micromolar, the equivalent in homeopathy is 3C) and 10-9(nanomolar).In decimal and centesimal scale of dilution, concentration of active medicinal substance in the water-ethanol solution and so, the number of molecules, reduces to 1/10 and 1/100 respectively.At 23X, the number of molecules reduces theoretically to 6.022 and 0.6022 at 24X. At 11C, the number of molecules reduces theoretically to 60.22 and 0.6022 at 12C.In terms of moles per litre, 12C contains 10-24 mol/L i.e. 0.6022 molecules/L i.e. 1 molecule/L. Even a single molecule can trigger or regulate a series of chain reaction that leads to activation of specific cell function [19]. The probability of finding 1 molecule of the n molecules of the original substance in 24X/12C potency and above is extremely small, but not zero.

The Avogadro’s limit for homeopathic solution is 23X/11C/LM4. Potencies upto 23X/11C/LM4 contains bulk concentration (molecules) of the remedy source material. Measurable quantities of pharmacologically active compounds has a clear-cut objective effect on the human body.

‘Super-Avogadro’s dilutions’ [12] (also known as high dilutions) are aqueous solutions diluted above Avogadro’s limit. Above Avogadro’s limit, the problem is baffling because they cannot be detected in blood samples so cannot be monitored inside the body easily.

In 1805, Hahnemann crossed Avogadro’s limit (Avogadro’s limit was however unknown at that time, it was discovered only in 1860), potency 18c appears for the first time. Homeopaths have been demonstrating the efficacy of ‘potentised high dilutions’ in their clinical practice since 1805. To test their efficacy, a German homeopath Johann Jacob Reuter invented Double Blind Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial in 1835 where Natrum Mur 30c was tested. But the trial result comes out to be negative.

In modern times, the paper [18] published in 1965 by Barnard was the first one to investigate how homeopathy works. According to paper, the polymers of water appear during the process of succussion which assumes specific configuration in a potency depending upon the chemical nature of the concerned drug. In year 1967-8, Barnard along with Stephenson come up with Imprint Theory which states that properties of original substance are transferred/imprinted on the carrier/solvent/diluent/vehicle (water-ethanol mixture). He mentioned imprinting by H2O protic polarization around pneumatic cavitation.The presence of molecules of the original substance beyond Avogadro’s limit was first mentioned in the French book Recherche expérimentale moderne en homéopathie (Modern Experimental Research in Homeopathy) in 1967 [13].

George Vithoulkas in his book “The Science of Homeopathy” in 1980 was the first one to introduce the concept of resonance in understanding how homeopathy works. He said, “Resonance occurs if the vibrational frequency of the remedy matches the resonant frequency of the defence mechanism of the patient.”The first DBRPCT in evidence of homeopathy published in paper [16] in 1980 revived the interest in homeopathy. The paper found that 82% patients got relief in rheumatoid arthritis by homeopathy compared to 21% on placebo. Then the paper [17] published in 1983 introduced Basophil Degranulation model. The Research gained momentum from 1988 onwards when paper in evidence of homeopathy appeared in journal ‘Nature’.

Since then researchers and scientists all over the world are trying to figure out how ‘super-avogadro dilutions’ of homeopathic medicines which contains extremely low concentration of active ingredients are able to stimulate biological activity (immunological and inflammatory reactivity), modulates specific genome expression patterns and restore the homeostatic mechanism (read vital force) of the living organism to boost the immunity and put the body on self-healing mode.

There is no single unitary explanation for the action of HDs on the organism, however an accumulation of evidence from various fields of science is building up a conceivable and plausible picture, in which biophysics is integrated with molecular biology and system biology [19].The 6 plausible mechanisms and pathways of action of ‘super-avogadro dilutions’ under investigations by researchers are


Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE (E. Davenas, F. Beauvais, J. Amara, M. Oberbaum, B. Robinzon, A. Miadonnai, A. Tedeschi, B. Pomeranz, P. Fortner, P. Belon, J. Sainte-Laudy, B. Poitevin & J. Benveniste,1988) FULL TEXT. The paper says, “Water could act as a ‘template’ for the [antibody] molecule, for example by an infinite hydrogen-bonded network”.

This paper is popularly known as Jacques Benveniste’s “memory of water” study. He duplicated his results 70 times. Three other research laboratories (in Israel, Canada and Italy) replicate the results before the paper was published—an unprecedented requirement.

The Nature castes doubts on the paper in their editorial against which K. Opitz, School of Maritime Studies, Hamburg remarked, “Does ‘Nature’ expect nature to accommodate academic disciplines in order to be vindicated? Casting doubt on findings merely because they are inconvenient to established assumptions and patterns of speculation strikes me as a poor way of advancing scientific knowledge”.

D. T. Reilly, University of Glasgow, U.K. observed, “Scientific belief belongs on a flat earth. There is no danger, no threat to science in the restatement of the drug diluent paradox. We need only apply the scientific method and then seek the verdict of experience”.

Apart from protein and nucleic acid, water molecules also acts as information carriers in living organisms. Water is able to store in its structure some information. Water structures differ from each other in number of hydrogen bonds and in the strength of hydrogen bonds.

Memory is a property associated to water present in biological process modulated by high dilutions. Water has the capacity to memorise molecular “energetic signatures” i.e. new energetic state. For that to happen, water has to be double distilled de-mineralised as well as subjected to the process of potentisation.It means water can store and transmit information of homeopathic potency by means of its hydrogen-bonded network. Succussion strengthens the hydrogen bonds in water structures.Ethanol stabilizes water structures (structural configurations of water) formed during potentisation and preserves them for a long time.

The 1988 Nature paper was replicated in 2001 Inflammation Research paper:Histamine 7c,9c,10c,13c inhibits basophil activation

1990: Water molecules form structures that can store minute electromagnetic signals (Dr. Emilio Del Giudice, Italy)

1991: Homeopathic substances give off electromagnetic signals, indicating specific dominant frequencies in each homeopathic substance (Wolfgang Ludwig)

Potentisation creates Molecular Clusters in water-ethanol solution (G S Anagnostatos et. al, 1991)

cluster: aggregation of molecular complexes in liquids (micro-domains)

Molecular clusters in aqueous-ethanol solutions (1991)

A research on molecular clustering in water solutions, which has shown that as a solution is made more and more dilute, very stable and larger ‘clumps’ of material develop in dilute solutions rather than in more concentrated solutions [10]. This means that residual molecular clusters of the original substance might be present in homeopathic solutions.

There are many residual variable-size molecular clusters (micro-domain) of the original substance as well as that of water in water-ethanol solution. In clusters, the molecules are held together by inter-molecular forces (reversible covalent bonds, non-static hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces).Alcohol acts more than just preservative. Alcohol forms its own cluster. Interestingly, alcohol forms clusters with water also [14]

Potentisation alters the structure of water (Rustom Roy et. al., 2005) [8]

Potentisation alters the structure of water to stable and unique clathrate-like hydrate nano-hetrogenous molecular structures; clathrate: molecular lattice.

The specific property of an liquid (aqueous-ethanol) potency lies in the specific structure of water acquired during the process of potentisation and preserved by ethanol.

The Structure of Liquid Water: Novel Insights from Materials Research: Potential Relevance to Homeopathy(2005) FULL TEXT //“The burden of proof on critics of homeopathy is to establish that the structure of the processed remedy is not different from the original solvent”

Ultra dilute solutions do indeed contain stable and unique molecular structures (2008) FULL TEXT

Succussion creates solitons (A V Tschulakow et. al., 2005)

Solitons are information carriers(2005) FULL TEXT // solitons carries the drug information to target locations in bodyand duration of stability of clusters (memory) is 10 minutes

Dissipative Structures in aqueous solutions (Elia et. al., 2007)

Elia et. al. showed the presence of ‘dissipative structures’ in extremely diluted aqueous solutions.

Sucussion may form Dissipative structuresin potentised solutions (2008)

Epitaxy (Manju Lata Rao et. al., 2007)

Epitaxy: Transfer of structural but not molecular information from surface of one material to another

Ref [7] proposed epitaxy as another mechanism by which specific remedy materials could transfer information to water structures in the ethanol-water solution.

Nano-Scale Structures in aqueous solutions (Nobel Laureate Dr. Luc Montagnier, 2009)

Nanostructures in highly diluted biological samples of bacteria and virus DNA produces electro-magnetic signals (2009) FULL TEXT

Luc Montagnier observed that potentised bacteria and virus DNA sequence at 5c and 6c potencies forms specific nanostructures which lasts 48 hours and emits electro-magnetic signals (low frequency radio waves) that have an ability to transmit information through water. EM signature changed with dilution levels but was unaffected by the initial concentration and remained even after the remaining DNA fragments were destroyed by chemical agents. However the EM signal was sensitive to heat over 70 degrees C and freezing -80 degrees C. Not only that, DNA sequences were recreated from its EM signature in pure water. That means EM signals were transmitted to pure water (that never had a DNA in it) placed in a container nearby in 18 hours. He reproduced his results 12 times.

Discussion on Luc Montagnier paper by Society of Homeopaths, Institute of Science in Society, Homeopathy World Community

Homeopathy works by Resonance (Shahabi S, Kasariyans A, Noorbakhsh F, 2013)

When remedy is put into water it takes on properties of remedy. More specifically remedy nanostructures rematerialises in water. When administered to patient it comes in contact with saliva in mouth, remedy nanostructures are induced in saliva and then to other fluids in the body where they are exposed to EM fields of cells/tissue/organs.

Resonance occurs if the frequency and amplitude of the patient’s EM waves and low frequency EM waves produced by nanostructures of the applied homeopathic remedy are similar.

Once resonance occurs, patient’s sensory neurons in sensory nerves present in sense organs are stimulated that send messages to the brain; the brain responds by sending signals back to the body to activate anti-inflammatory pathways, regulate immune functions, and restore homeostasis

More details at

Conclusion:The Memory of Water: an overview(2007)

Discussion on Memory of Water byMartin Chaplin,Wolfgang Ludwig,Sue Young,Lionel MilgromandDebby Bruck


High Pressure shockwaves during the potentisation alters the physical-chemical properties of the carrier/solvent/diluent/vehicle (water-ethanol solution) such as electrical conductivity.

Thermodynamics of extremely diluted aqueous solutions(1999) FULL TEXT //Successive dilutions and succussions may alter permanently the physical-chemical properties of the solvent water

New Physico-Chemical Properties of Extremely-Diluted Aqueous Solutions(2004) FULL TEXT // The procedure of dilutions and succussions is capable of modifying in a permanent way the physico-chemical features of water.

Electrical conductivity increases as potency increases(2008)

Ultra dilute solutions have remarkable biological properties (2008) FULL TEXT

Standard physico-chemical techniques [3,4], thermo-luminescence [5,6], Raman and UV–VIS spectroscopy [7,8] and other methods [9] have shown that water displays large changes in its physico-chemical properties.

Succussion creates colloidal nano-bubbles (Manju Lata Rao et. al, 2007) [7]

Succussion might also be responsible for creating nano-bubbles that could contain gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and possibly the homeopathic source material. The trituration and succusion process generates shockwaves in a transient localized regions of high pressure (10,000-15,000 atmospheres i.e. 1042117-1563176 kN/m2) which is powerful enough to trigger fundamental changes in the properties of the carrier ina significant and persistent way.


Supramolecule: Two or more molecules held together by intermolecular forces (reversible non-covalent interactions)

NMR water proton relaxation in high aqueous dilutions of histamine: Evidence for supramolecular organization of water (2009) FULL TEXT// Succussion induce large-scale long-lived highly-ordered stable supramolecular organisation of water in chains in the vicinity of nanobubbles through hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonding in potentised high dilutions of histamine

Nanosized solvent superstructures in ultramolecular aqueous dilutions (2013) //nanosized (>4-nm) supramolecular structures involving nanobubbles and ions

Succussion generates silicates (2004)

NMR water proton longitudinal relaxation in ultrahighly diluted aqueous solutions (2004) //6 parts per million of “silicates/silica fragments” (tiny glass chips) are known to fall off the walls of glass vial during succussion process

Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions (2010)

Succussion creates colloidal nano-bubbles (Manju Lata Rao et. al, 2007) [7]

Succussion might also be responsible for creating nano-bubbles that could contain gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and possibly the homeopathic source material. The trituration and succusion process generates shockwaves in a transient localized regions of high pressure (10,000-15,000 atmospheres i.e. 1042117-1563176 kN/m2) which is powerful enough to trigger fundamental changes in the properties of the carrier ina significant and persistent way.

D. PRESENCE OF NANOPARTICLES (Prashant S Chikramane et. al., 2010)

1. Research by IIT Bombay in 2010 indicates the presence of1-4000 picograms/mililitre of fine nano-particles (5-15 nanometer) of the original starting material in 200c potency of metal-derived homeopathic medicines.

The body runs on micro and nano doses. The levels of hormones and cell signalling agents in our body is in the picograms/mililitre range such as 10–900pg/ml for estradiol, 300–10,000pg/ml for testosterone, and 8–27pg/ml for T4, 1 drop=o.o5 ml

2. Research by IIT Delhi and Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (Govt. of India) in 2011 indicates the presence ofcrystalline nano-particles (100 nano-metre) in 15c potency of plant-derived homeopathic medicines. More about nanoparticles here.

3. Research in IIT Kharagpur in 2012 found the presence of biologically active digoxin-like substance in Digitalis Purpurea 30c and 200c.

4. Research by IIT Bombay in 2012 explains the process by which these nanoparticles are transferred and retained beyond avogadro limit and has been documented with high speed videography.

Conclusion: Nanoparticles of the original medicinal substances (remedy) and silicaforms 3-dimensional dynamic nanostructures in the solvent which has itself unique water structures in it.

5. Research by Israel Institute of Technology in 2013 showed that nanoparticles of Cocculus Indicus 30c ameliorates attention and motor abilities and moderates hormonal alterations in sleep-deprived rats


Entanglement-a concept established by Schrödinger in 1935.

Atmanspacher, Römer & Walach (2002) proposed a model ‘Weak Quantum Theory” (generalised version of Quantum Mechanics) that predicts a generalised form of entanglement.

Walach proposed ‘Entanglement model of Homeopathy‘ in 2003.

Dr. Lionel Milogram in 2006 derived a PPR Entanglement model of homeopathy based on Quantum Field Theory.

non-local: corelation between seperated but entangled parts of quantum system [milogram] i.e. particles once connected retain their connectiion and influence upon each other even at a distance [ervin laszlo]

PPR Entanglement Theory FULL TEXT (2007)

Is Homeopathy Possible? (2006) FULL TEXT

Geometrical Description of PPR Entanglement

Researchers are also looking at Quantum Coherence Domains (2004) in water as a plausible mechanism for high dilutions. There are stable coherent domains of about 100 nm in diameter.

Quasi-quantum model of potentization:

P.S. 1. The oxygen atom has 6 electrons in its valence shell, but 8 are possible according to quantum physics.

2. A flip-flop can store 1 bit of information but 2 are possible according to quantum computers.

3. Quantum effect is pronounced on nano scale. For example nanoparticles less than 50 nanometres are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects.

F. CORPOREAL SIGNIFIERS (Madeleine Bastide and Lagache A,1995)

The Theory of Corporeal signifiers (semantics) was put up in place byMadeleine Bastide and Lagache A in 1992 and was applied to homeopathy in 1995

The originator of the information is the starting material of the remedy; succussed dilutions of the starting material in a solvent are mediators. This mediation results from the succussed solvent being in a specific state, implying perhaps electro-magnetic processes. The receiver (the body) receives and processes the information in the remedy according to its state.

1. The raw material for the preparation of a homeopathic remedy is the information matrix.

2. The solvent (water) employed in the homeopathic preparation is the information carrier.

“imprint” – through succussion – or “erase” – through electromagnetic fields – the information contained in it.

3. The patient is the receiver of information

More details are here

Significant Years of Research

1965: Polymers of water whose configuration is specific to chemical nature of remedy source (Barnard)

1980: Homeopathy works on resonance phenomenon (George Vithoulkas)

1988: Memory of unique water structures

1990: Water molecules form structures that can store minute electromagnetic signals (Dr. Emilio Del Giudice, Italy)

1991: Homeopathic substances give off electromagnetic signals, indicating specific dominant frequencies in each homeopathic substance (Wolfgang Ludwig)

1991: Potentisation creates molecular clusters in water

1999: Potentisation alters the properties of Water

2001: Presence of “nanobubbles” in water [1]

2003: Quantum Macro Entanglement Model

2004: Succussion adds silicates

2005: Potentisation alters the structure of water

2007: Succussion creates colloidal nano-bubbles

2008: Homeopathic medicines have stable and unique clathrate-like hydrate nano-heterogeneousmolecular structure of water with recognizable properties (Dr. Rustom Roy)

2008: Dilution determines the number density of residual nanobubbles in diluted solution [2]

2009: Potentisation creates nanostructures (Dr. Luc Montagnier, Nobel laureate)

2010: Nanoparticles in 200c potency (IIT Bombay)

2011: Potentisation creates nanoscale domains of water molecules (nano-domains) [11]

2011: Nanocrystals in 15c potency (IIT Delhi)

2012:Nanoparticles are transferred and retained beyond avogadro limit

2013: Homeopathy works on Resonance phenomenon (Shahabi S, Kasariyans A, Noorbakhsh F.)

2013:Nanoparticles of Cocculus Indicus 30c ameliorates attention and motor abilities and moderates hormonal alterations in sleep-deprived rats

Listen to this blogpost below

Further Reading:

Research Database in Homeopathy

Related Post

Scientific Research in Homeopathy

Last Modified: This article was last updated on 15th Feb 2014.

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Comments RSS
  1. Dr. Nancy Malik

  2. Dr. Nancy Malik

  3. Dr. Nancy Malik

  4. Dr. Nancy Malik

    “Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it.” – Niels Bohr.

  5. Dr. Nancy Malik

  6. Dr. Nancy Malik

  7. debbybruck

    We appreciate that scientists and researchers continue to explore, searching for ways to explain and understand the nature of homeopathy. However, this does not mean we must wait to use these super minuscule doses of energy for healing the sick. Hahnemann began in 1790 and we have gathered encyclopedias and libraries full of evidence to its effectiveness.

    • Dr. Nancy Malik

      Placebos or medicine. A good laugh at ourselves? Either way skeptics think it works for us and millions.

  8. Sitaram Kewat Jbp

    This may be viewed b y every Homoeopathic Medical colleges of India. and all units of Homoeopathic Medical Association of India and all other Associations.

    • Dr. Nancy Malik

      Thank You sir that you find it impressive and your kind appreciation.

  9. Dr.Swapna Potdar

    The time is soon here when we can definitively describe the mode of action of homoeopathic medicines!

    • Dr. Nancy Malik

      Thank You Dr. Swapna. I agree with you that we are not far away from it. Regards

  10. Shahram Shahabi

    Dear Dr. Nancy Malik
    Thanks very much for your nice article. You have done a complete review on the researches on mechanism of action of homeopathy. Homeopathy needs a model to explain its properties scientifically. “The lack of such a mechanistic model is one of the main causes for homeopathy lagging behind conventional medicine.”

  11. Dr. Nancy Malik

    You can listen to this blog post at
    To Download mp3 (8 MB, 25 minutes), Right click>Save As

  12. Dr. Nancy Malik

  13. Dr. Nancy Malik

    As long as there are pseudoseptics who claim super-avogadro dilutions in homoeopathy does not work, we must never tire of explaining how it does

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