Research Models in Homeopathy

Basophil Degranulation Model, Quantum Macro Entanglement Model, Protocols



Experimental Model, Biological Model, Pharmacological Model, Pre-and post-conditioning Hormesis Model, Cytometric Protocols, Research Design
Key Persons: Jacques Benveniste, Philippe Belon, van Wijk R, Walach H
Upto the end of year 2010, there have been 22 studies on research models in homeopathy published in 12 medical journals (6 integrative, 2 homeopathy and 4 CAM journals). These 22 studies on research models are part of the total 299 human studies in evidence of homeopathy upto the end of 2010.

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URL Links to 22 studies (Journal-wise) including 10 FULL TEXT PDF papers are available as compendium on this webpage as well as read at or downloaded from Google Drive

The compendium is prepared by mining 14 online electronic databases:PubMed Central (National Library of medicine, USA), MedWorm, British library Direct (type homeopathy in search box),Centre for Reviews and Dissemination(type homeopathy in search box),Scirus, Google Scholar and HomBRexThe Allied and Complementary Medicine Database,Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, Excerpta Medica Database Embase,Science Citation Index,Lilacs, CAM QUESTand Clinical Outcome Research in Homeopathy (

Exclusion Criterion (What kind of studies are not included?)

1.Studies on Plants and Animals

2.Studies published in non-journal paper

3.Non-peer reviewed studies from year 1893 onwards

4.Statistically non-significant studies (Probability value<0.05, odds ratio >1, indicates statistical significance)

5.Studies in which combination of homeopathic medicine with any other medicine is prescribed

6.Studies in which medicine is perceived to be homeopathic but is not such as radionically prepared or different potencies of same medicine mixed together

Research Models

A. Basophil Degranulation Model (Biological Model for high dilution research)

B. Post-Conditioning Hormesis Model

C. Quantum Macro Entanglement Model

D. Miscellaneous


Basophils (involved in immune response) are white blood cells extracted from blood of donors and then stimulated by potentised antibody generator (antigen) (such as histamine and apis) causing them to degranulation

1. Aspects of Research in Homeopathy

The Effects of Hahnemannian Potencies of 7c Histaminum and 7c Apis Mellifica upon Basophil Degranulation in Allergic Patients (1983), Jean Boiron, Jacky Abecassls, and Philippe Belon

Histamine 7c and Apis 7c reduces the release of certain allergy causing chemicals from basophils

2.Innovation et technologie en biologie et médecine (French) (meaning) Innovation and Technology in Biology and Medicine

Effect of Apis mellifica on the in vitro human basophil degranulation (1986) //incubation of basophils with high dilutions of Apis mellifica inhibits allergen-induced basophil

3.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

In vitro immunological degranulation of human basophils is modulated by Lung histamine 5c,15c,18c and Apis mellifica 9c,10c (1988) FULL TEXT // blind experiment, in-vitro

4. Nature

Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE (1988) FULL TEXT // This study is popularly known as“memory of water” study. Benveniste replicated his results 70 times. Three other labs (in Israel, Canada, Italy) replicate the results before the paper was published—an unprecedented requirement.Antiserum is blood serum containing antibodies.

5. Inflammation Research

Inhibition of human basophil degranulation by successive histamine dilutions (1999) FULL TEXT

Histamine 7c,9c,10c,13c inhibits basophil activation (2001) //Benveniste paper in Nature published in 1988 got replicated in this paper

Histamine 15-19C, 30X, 38X modulates anti-igE stimulated human basophil (CD63) activation (2004) FULL TEXT //Flow Cytometry Analysis at 4 different laboratories in Europe found that Potentised Histamine alters the activity of White Blood Cells. Peak of biological activity at 16c,,It is known as Pre-Conditioning Hormesis model (Philippe Belon et. al., 2004):The model is different to that of Benveniste; he used the same control but not the same activator.This study was replicated in two studies mentioned below.

Cytometric Protocols for analysis of human basophil (CD203c) activation: Biological Activity of Histamine 17C (2006) FULL TEXT

Histamine 2C, 12C, 14-16C potency inhibits CD203c up-regulation in anti-IgE stimulated human basophils (2009) FULL TEXT

6. Forschende Komplementärmedizin(German) meaning Research in Complimentary Medicine

Histamine 11c,12c inhibits basophil activation (2003) // in vitro

7. Homeopathy

Histamine 3-20x inhibits basophil activation (2003) // in vitro

Improvement of flow cytometric analysis of basophil activation inhibition by high histamine dilutions (2006)

Inhibition of basophil activation by histamine 15-17c: a reproducible model (2009)

High Dilution Research models: a bibliometric study (2010) FULL TEXT//22 out of 24 experimental models were reproducible and 7 of them were independently reproducible

Conclusion: Histamine in potency below avogado’s limit such as 2c, 5c, 7c-12 c, 3x-20x as well as above avogadro’s limit such as 13c-19c modulates human basophil activation.

B.Post-Conditioning Hormesis model (Van Wijk R and Wiegant, 1997)

1. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

The similia principle as a therapeutic strategy (1997) Low dose of stressor agent (represents homeopathic medicine) such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, etc is applied to disturbed/stressed cell culture (represents ill patient).


Atmanspacher, Römer & Walach (2002) proposed a model ‘Weak Quantum Theory” (generalised version of Quantum Mechanics) that predicts a generalised form of entanglement-a concept established by Schrödinger in 1935. Walach proposed ‘Entanglement model of Homeopathy‘ in 2003.

1.Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde (German) meaning meaning Research in Complementary and Natural Classical Medicine

Entanglement model of Homeopathy (Walach H, 2003)

2. Forschende Komplementärmedizin

A PPR Entanglement model of homeopathy based on Quantum Field Theory (Linonel Milogram, 2006)

3. Evidence-based Complimentary & Alternative Medicine

Entanglement Theory(2007) FULL TEXT

4. Perspective in Public Health

Is Homeopathy Possible?(2006) FULL TEXT

Geometrical Description of PPR Entanglement

P.S. 1. The oxygen atom has 6 electrons in its valence shell, but 8 are possible according to quantum physics.

2. A flip-flop can store 1 bit of information but 2 are possible according to quantum computers.

3. Quantum effect is pronounced on nano scale. For example nanoparticles less than 50 nanometres are small enough to confine their electrons and produce quantum effects.


D1. Research Design of DBRPCT in Homeopathy

1. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

Clinical Trials of Classical Homeopathy: Appropriate Research Designs (2003) FULL TEXT

D2. Protocols for homeopathic practice in ICU


Protocols for homeopathic practice in ICU (2008)

Last Modified: This webpage was last updated on 02 March 2015.

DISTRIBUTION OF STUDIES on Research Models (Published till 2010)
Type of Research No. of studies No. of Journals Type of Journal
Research Models
10 5 Integrative
6 2 Homeopathy
7 5 CAM
22 12

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